When Humans Were Prey The Two People We're All Related To 5 months ago   09:52

PBS Eons
Not too long ago, our early human ancestors were under constant threat of attack from predators. And it turns out that this difficult chapter in our history may be responsible for the adaptations that allowed us to become so successful.

Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Studio 252mya for the illustrations of the Taung Child. You can find more of Julio's work here: https://252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda

Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios

Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible:
Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Renzo Caimi Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Marilyn Wolmart, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, الخليفي سلطان , Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan

If you'd like to support the channel, head over to http://patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards!

Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet?
Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/eonsshow
Twitter - https://twitter.com/eonsshow
Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/eonsshow/

References:
http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/taung-child
http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/paranthropus-robustus
http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/oh-8
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4729050.stm
http://time.com/5424347/remains-neanderthal-giant-bird-poland/
http://scienceinpoland.pap.pl/en/news/news%2C31287%2Cscientists-discover-oldest-human-remains-poland-they-are-over-100000-years-old.html
Berger, L. R. (2006). Brief communication: Predatory bird damage to the Taung type-skull of Australopithecus africanus Dart 1925. American Journal of Physical Anthropology: The Official Publication of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 131(2), 166-168.
Berger, L. R., & Clarke, R. J. (1995). Eagle involvement in accumulation of the Taung child fauna. Journal of Human Evolution, 29(3), 275-299.
Berger, L. R., & McGraw, W. S. (2007). Further evidence for eagle predation of, and feeding damage on, the Taung child. South African Journal of Science, 103(11-12), 496-498.
Blumenschine, R. J., Stanistreet, I. G., Njau, J. K., Bamford, M. K., Masao, F. T., Albert, R. M., ... & Fernández-Jalvo, Y. (2012). Environments and hominin activities across the FLK Peninsula during Zinjanthropus times (1.84 Ma), Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution, 63(2), 364-383.
Brain, C. K. (1970). New finds at the Swartkrans australopithecine site. Nature, 225(5238), 1112.
Brain, C. K. (1983). The hunters or the hunted?: an introduction to African cave taphonomy. University of Chicago Press.
Bunn, H. T. (1991). A taphonomic perspective on the archaeology of human origins. Annual Review of Anthropology, 20(1), 433-467.
Dart, R. A. (1949). The predatory implemental technique of Australopithecus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 7(1), 1-38.
Dart, R. A. (1953). The predatory transition from ape to man. Brill.
Dart, R. A. (1958). The Minimal Bone-Breccia Content of Makapansgat and the Australopithecine Predatory Habit. American Anthropologist, 60(5), 923-931.
Hart, D. (2018). Man the hunted: Primates, predators, and human evolution. Routledge.
Hart, D., & Sussman, R. W. (2011). The influence of predation on primate and early human evolution: impetus for cooperation. In Origins of Altruism and Cooperation (pp. 19-40). Springer, New York, NY.
Njau, J. K., & Blumenschine, R. J. (2006). A diagnosis of crocodile feeding traces on larger mammal bone, with fossil examples from the Plio-Pleistocene Olduvai Basin, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution, 50(2), 142-162.
Njau, J. K., & Blumenschine, R. J. (2012). Crocodylian and mammalian carnivore feeding traces on hominid fossils from FLK 22 and FLK NN 3, Plio-Pleistocene, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Journal of human evolution, 63(2), 408-417.
Pickering, T. R., Schick, K. D., & Toth, N. P. (Eds.). (2007). Breathing life into fossils: taphonomic studies in honor of CK (Bob) Brain. Gosport, IN: Stone Age Institute Press.
Tobias, P. V. (1990). When and by whom was the Taung skull discovered. Para conocer al hombre: homenaje a Santiago Genovése. Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autonoma da Mexico, 207-213.
Washburn, S. L. (1957). Australopithecines: the hunters or the hunted?. American Anthropologist, 59(4), 612-614.
Zuberbühler, K., & Jenny, D. (2002). Leopard predation and primate evolution. Journal of Human Evolution, 43(6), 873-886.

Comments 1759 Comments

Add Reply

The Two People We're All Related To When Humans Were Prey 5 months ago   09:32

Check out Two Cents: https://up-tube.com/channel/HPY8j_N8c8C1UJV3x6CE5M6j

Due to an odd quirk of genetics and some unique evolutionary circumstances, two humans who lived at different times in the distant past managed to pass on a very small fraction of their genomes to you. And to me. To all of us.

Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios

Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible:

Katie Fichtner, Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Anthony Callaghan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Anel Salas, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, Svetlana Pylaeva, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao. Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Joshua Mitchell, Johnny Li, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan

If you'd like to support the channel, head over to http://patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards!

Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet?
Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/eonsshow
Twitter - https://twitter.com/eonsshow
Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/eonsshow/

References:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3334592/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3267120/
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f4ee/6bfac21f39ac51fc306ba3100c2ebd2ee61a.pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5892150/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4032117/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5500864/
http://haplogroup-a.com/Ancient-Root-AJHG2013.pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5418327/
http://ase.tufts.edu/chemistry/hhmi/documents/Protocols/Maternal%20Ancestry_Introduction_Reworked_Aug_25_2011.pdf
http://pages.ucsd.edu/~dkjordan/resources/clarifications/MitochondrialEve.html
https://www.cell.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0960-9822%2813%2900215-7
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4367903/
https://www.cell.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0002-9297%2809%2900163-3
https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22429904-500-found-closest-link-to-eve-our-universal-ancestor/
https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/no-mitochondrial-eve-not-first-female-species-180959593/
https://www.nature.com/news/genetic-adam-and-eve-did-not-live-too-far-apart-in-time-1.13478
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5525259/
https://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/evolution-y-chromosome
http://www.pnas.org/content/106/38/16018
https://www.nature.com/articles/jhg2012154
https://academic.oup.com/mbe/article/27/8/1833/988857
https://www.nature.com/articles/325031a0
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2694979/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4381518/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28086175