The Island of Shrinking Mammoths Life, Sex & Death Among the Dire 2 weeks ago   12:15

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The mammoths fossils found on the Channel Islands off the coast of southern California are much smaller than their relatives found on the mainland. They were so small that they came to be seen as their own species. How did they get there? And why were they so small?

Thanks to Ceri Thomas for the mammoth reconstructions throughout this episode. Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at http://alphynix.tumblr.com and http://nixillustration.com

Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Studio 252mya for the Palaeoloxodon illustrations. You can find more of Julio's work here: https://252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda

Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios

Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible:

Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, Renzo Caimi Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Marilyn Wolmart, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, سلطان الخليفي, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan

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References:
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1940&context=usgsstaffpub
https://www.nhm-wien.ac.at/jart/prj3/nhm/data/uploads/mitarbeiter_dokumente/goehlich/2016/Semprebon_et_al_2016%20Dietary%20reconstruction%20of%20pygmy%20mammoths%20from%20Santa%20Rosa%20Island%20California.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288262862_A_late_Pleistocene_pollen_record_from_San_Miguel_Island_California_preliminary_results
“Extreme expansion of the olfactory receptor gene repertoire in African elephants and evolutionary dynamics of orthologous gene groups in 13 placental mammals.” Niimura Y, Matsui A, Touhara K. 2014.
https://web.archive.org/web/20060508113748/http://www.cq.rm.cnr.it/elephants2001/pdf/473_475.pdf
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S104061821100190X
https://kundoc.com/pdf-on-the-importance-of-stratigraphic-control-for-vertebrate-fossil-sites-in-channe.html
https://www.app.pan.pl/archive/published/app61/app001362014.pdf  
https://www.jstor.org/stable/2844657?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents  
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.541.6488&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Evolution of Island Mammals: Adaptation and Extinction of Placental Mammals on Islands by Alexandra van der Geer, George Lyras, John de Vos and Michael Dermitzakis.
Niimura Y, Matsui A, Touhara K. 2014. Extreme expansion of the olfactory receptor gene repertoire in African elephants and evolutionary dynamics of orthologous gene groups in 13 placental mammals. Genome Res doi: 10.1101/gr.169532.113
https://www.nhm-wien.ac.at/jart/prj3/nhm/data/uploads/mitarbeiter_dokumente/goehlich/2016/Semprebon_et_al_2016%20Dietary%20reconstruction%20of%20pygmy%20mammoths%20from%20Santa%20Rosa%20Island%20California.pdf
"Sea level, paleogeography, and archeology on California's Northern
Channel Islands," by Reeder-Myers et al. 2015.
https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1940&context=usgsstaffpub
https://web.archive.org/web/20060508113748/http://www.cq.rm.cnr.it/elephants2001/pdf/473_475.pdf
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.896.6234&rep=rep1&type=pdf
https://kundoc.com/pdf-on-the-importance-of-stratigraphic-control-for-vertebrate-fossil-sites-in-channe.html
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S104061821100190X
http://natural-history.uoregon.edu/research/paleocoastal-research-project/santarosae-island
https://www.nhm-wien.ac.at/jart/prj3/nhm/data/uploads/mitarbeiter_dokumente/goehlich/2016/Semprebon_et_al_2016%20Dietary%20reconstruction%20of%20pygmy%20mammoths%20from%20Santa%20Rosa%20Island%20California.pdf
https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1940&context=usgsstaffpub

Comments 1007 Comments

justsomeofmyfavs
Hey guys, let me throw in some suggestions for the next animal evolution videos:
1. How and why did the order Carnivora (which includes most mammalian predators) split into two basic lineages - Caniformia (dog-like creatures) and Feliformia (cat-like creatures), and why the former seem to be more diverse and numerous than the latter.
2. How it came to be that all bears except the polar one tend to eat more plants/invertebrates than full-blown vertebrate meat, the prime example being the giant panda. As opposed to other large land predators, like big cats for example.
3. The evolution of fur on mammal-like reptiles and mammals as opposed to feathers on dinosaurs.
4. The evolution of animal psychology as brain size grew.
Guilherme Tonon
they didn't need less suply, they hadn't. So the next generation grows week and smaller, and thinner.
So... it´s not like they had less food.
A. G.
I would like to have that small mammut at home )
He should eat not very much, not more then horse.
Mike Dennis
These animals were also found on Wrangel Island near Siberia.
Miria
I've been following this since the beginning, and I have to say, even if each video is really, really good, I need to also compliment the music used, it's so nice!! I always find myself paying attention to the music when I rewatch because it's so good. Such a good soundtrack.
lewistrundell(Pan)
Did you know it happened to dinosaurs as well.

There was at one point a group of sauropod dinosaurs that lived of a group of islands and they were predated by a pterosaur.
0Flow0
The mammoth smelling with its trunk is cute.
Matan Alayof
Hi at 3:10 you show iceberg that require water and the sea level drops but its only land ice the its freezing drops the see level
Kavin Kumar
I would like to know if how were different dinosaur parents.
ChopRamen
wow i never would have thought the scene from tarzan where the elephant swims and uses his trunk like a snorkel would be accurate. but the trunk probably cant double as a periscope, i'm guessing.
Harsh Mangal
Of course, it had to be us!
Kieran Reed
Please can you do a video on whether dinosaurs were cold or warm blooded, and how that relates to the birds and reptiles of today?
Chris Heichel
Most of the animals already have the gene for smaller size those that don't recieved it via detrimental mutation and or loss of genetic mutation I fail to see (present tense) an increase in useful information that would successfully pass on to future generations. Anything that may have happened b4 man came along/ started recording history is theory/educated guess and are non reproducible events therefore not science




P.S. the previous rant is my humble belief. I wasn't there and I can't reproduce any of it, so it's my belief. Not science!
Link Miyamoto
Two words that this video needs: Homo Florensiensis
Nico L. Reino
One of the things I love the most about this channel is that you use the metric system. We the rest of the world appreciate it ❤️
knate44
Any plans to talk about Homo floresiensis? It would tie in the human evolution with Foster's rules videos quite nicely.
isaac knott
10/10 best eons episode
Mic Cool Moral Lay Ha
Could yall make a video on this most recent epoch? (The plastic epoch
Mammot h
Thanks for this!
Maxim Makarov
A video on sexual dimorphism perhaps?
Add Reply

Life, Sex & Death Among the Dire The Island of Shrinking Mammoths 2 weeks ago   09:42

This is not a Game of Thrones fan fiction episode. Dire wolves were real! And thousands of them died in the same spot in California. Their remains have taught us volumes about how they lived, hunted, died and way more about any animal’s sex life than you’d ever want to know.

Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios

Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible:
Katie Fichtner, Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Anthony Callaghan, Marcus Lejon, Anel Salas, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, Svetlana Pylaeva, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Wilco Verweij, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Elysha Nygård, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Joshua Mitchell, Johnny Li, Jacob Gerke, Brandon Burke, Alex Yan

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References:
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314984082_Posttraumatic_chronic_osteomyeltis_in_Stegosaurus_dermal_spikes
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040618215002499
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https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282253545_Dental_Microwear_Textures_of_Carnivorans_from_the_La_Brea_Tar_Pits_California_and_Potential_Extinction_Implications
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